Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2018, Page: 27-36
Assessment of Foreign Material Load in the Management of Faecal Sludge in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana
Issahaku Ahmed, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Ama Mbeaba Quarshie, Department of Basic & Applied Biology, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Dennis Ofori-Amanfo, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Florence Cobbold, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Eric Simon Amofa-Sarkodie, Sewerage Systems Ghana Ltd., Accra, Ghana
Esi Awuah, Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Received: Jan. 29, 2018;       Accepted: Feb. 11, 2018;       Published: Mar. 6, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijees.20180301.13      View  1086      Downloads  39
Abstract
Faecal sludge management has been a burden for most waste managers particularly in developing countries; yet a sure way of preventing the continuous disposal of this waste into drains, bushes water bodies and the environs in general has been by treatment. The introduction of a new treatment plant with the UASB technology in the management process of faecal sludge has been much welcomed as an improved technology for solving the treatment problems of the waste; but this technology is not without some challenges. It has no design criteria for the treatment of other wastes that it screens from faecal sludge. This paper assessed the foreign material load in faecal sludge dislodged at the treatment plant at the Lavender hill a suburb of the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The foreign materials in the faecal sludge were categorized into their material composition or items that were relatively easy to recognized. The characteristic components were Textile/Fabric, Condoms, Gravels, Metal, Glass, Sanitary pads, Rubber/Plastics and Others’ (cotton wool, mobile phones, broom sticks, paper wrappers, cartons, wallets, ID cards, money, feotus). The faecal sludge of Greater Accra region of Ghana contains about 0.24kg of foreign materials per cubic metre of the faecal sludge. Of this composition, the highest contribution was seen to have come from plastics contributing about 36.80%. Sanitary pads, textiles, ‘others’ category, condoms, stones, metals and glasses respectively contributing 29.89%,18.55%, 7.47%, 3.74%, 2.52%, 0.06% and 0.16%. The order of the load of the foreign materials were seen to be in the order of Plastics/Rubbers > Sanitary pads >Textiles/Fabrics > Others > Condoms > Gravels > Glass > Metals. These wastes pose mechanical and technical challenges to the treatment plant. Inasmuch as responsible environmental behavior through public sensitization on proper use of pit latrines in particular and the need for their redesign to make them almost impossible for use as dumping pits for other wastes were recommended, the utilization of some of these foreign materials that have the potential to be reused like the money, memory chips or mobile phones could potentially be a source of spread for disease like cholera and diarrhea as the FS contains a lot of pathogenic bacteria.
Keywords
Faecal Sludge, Latrines, UASB Technology, Characterization, Foreign Material Load
To cite this article
Issahaku Ahmed, Ama Mbeaba Quarshie, Dennis Ofori-Amanfo, Florence Cobbold, Eric Simon Amofa-Sarkodie, Esi Awuah, Assessment of Foreign Material Load in the Management of Faecal Sludge in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.11648/j.ijees.20180301.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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